Subcutaneous dirofilariasis: case series

Authors

  • Jeena K. Sathyan Department of General Surgery, Baby Memorial hospital, Kannur, Kerala, India
  • Febi Cheri Eapen Department of Orthopedics, Baby Memorial hospital, Kannur, Kerala, India
  • Aghosh M. C. Department of General Surgery, Baby Memorial hospital, Kannur, Kerala, India
  • Karan Krishna Kurup Department of Orthopedics, Baby Memorial hospital, Kannur, Kerala, India https://orcid.org/0009-0002-3937-2875

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20232991

Keywords:

Dirofilariasis, Cystic lesion, Inflammation, Surgical excision

Abstract

Dirofilariasis is a parasitic infection caused by Dirofilaria worms, transmitted through mosquito bites, primarily affecting dogs but also affecting humans incidentally. This introduction provides an overview of the various forms of dirofilariasis, with focus on subcutaneous and pulmonary types, and highlights its geographical distribution. Subsequent case reports describe 3 instances of dirofilariasis in different anatomical locations, emphasizing diagnostic findings and successful surgical treatment. Discussion delves into nature of human subcutaneous dirofilariasis (HSD), emphasizing D. repens and D. immitis as common causative species. It explains lifecycle of these parasites, their transmission through mosquito vectors, and various clinical manifestations based on species and affected body areas. Diagnostic approaches are elucidated with particular focus on importance of HPE in identifying specific species. This case series highlights importance of increased awareness, diagnostic tests, and vector control is emphasized to enable early detection and treatment, thus avoiding further complications and mortality associated with the dirofilariasis.

References

Pampiglione S, Rivasi F. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: an update of world literature from 1995 to 2000. Parassitologia. 2000(42):82-116.

Senanayake MP, Infaq ML, Adikaram SG, Udagama PV. Ocular and subcutaneous dirofilariasis in a Sri Lankan infant: an environmental hazard caused by dogs and mosquitoes. Paediatrics Int Child Health. 2013;33(2):111-2.

Sabu L, Devada K, Subramanian H. Dirofilariosis in dogs and humans in Kerala. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121(5):691.

Thongpiya J, Kreetitamrong S, Thongsit T, Toothong T, Rojanapanus S, Sarasombath PT. The first case report of subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens in Thailand. Trop Parasitol. 2021;11(2):125.

Jelinek T, Schulte‐Hillen JA, Loscher T. Human dirofilariasis. Int J Dermatol. 1996c;35(12):872-5.

Taylor MJ, Hoerauf A, Bockarie M. Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1175-85.

Hoerauf A, Pfarr K, Mand S, Debrah AY, Specht S. Filariasis in Africa-treatment challenges and prospects. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17(7):977-85.

McCall JW, Varloud M, Hodgkins E, Mansour A, Di Costy U, McCall S et al. Shifting the paradigm in Dirofilaria immitis prevention: blocking transmission from mosquitoes to dogs using repellents/insecticides and macrocyclic lactone prevention as part of a multimodal approach. Parasites Vectors. 2017;10:75-85.

CDC-Dirofliariasis-Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). CDC-Dirofliariasis-Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 2020. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/dirofilariasis/faqs.html. Accessed on 05 June, 2023.

Lechner AM, Gastager H, Kern JM, Wagner B, Tappe D. Case report: successful treatment of a patient with microfilaremic dirofilariasis using doxycycline. Am J Trop Med Hygiene. 2020;102(4):844.

Downloads

Published

2023-09-28

Issue

Section

Case Series