Study the predicators and risk factors for formation of gallstones in a sample of asymptomatic Iraqi patients in Baghdad


  • Mohammed Saleem Mazyad General and Laparoscopic Surgery, Iraqi Board of General Surgery, Al Karama Teaching Hospital, Iraq
  • Bilal Hamid Abdul-Ghafoor Department of Pediatric Surgery, Pediatric Surgeon Child Center Teaching Hospital, Iraq



Asymptomatic gallstones, Baghdad, Diabetes mellitus, GBS, Predictors, Physical activity, Risk factors


Background: A gallbladder stone (GBS) is a foremost reason of morbidity worldwide. Majority of the cases are asymptomatic (>80%). Gallstones can be divided into three main types: cholesterol, pigment and mixed stones. The documented risk factors for GBS mostly are the advanced age, female gender, obesity, high-caloric diets and oral contraceptive, all of these can increase the lithogenicity of bile.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted at general surgical consultation departments in two major multispecialty hospitals in Baghdad (Al-Yarmook and Al Karama Teaching Hospitals) and in different health centers in Baghdad and through an online survey between February 2022 and February 2023. The study sample included 225 participants of both genders. The study questionnaires were sent through electronic format to the participants and the questions were asked to the others directly with enough time to respond well. The target population was all segments of society in the city of Baghdad.

Results: The 225 patients were collected which their age range from 18 to 80 years of age. According to the collected data which showed that the percentage of GBS higher in female than male in value (54.2%) while for male (45.8%). Additionally, also it was found that the residence place has an important impact for this study and it presented that residency in urban places was (96.9%) which is higher than rural places which was only (3.1%). Also, most of patients were with: collage education (73.8%), non-employed (52.9%), middle-income class (72.4%). The results showed significant result (p<0.05) and good association between age, and type of stones present (solitary or multiple); but for the gender, education level, occupation status, residence, socioeconomic class the results was non-significant (p>0.05).

Conclusions: The prevalence of asymptomatic gallstone was relatively high in this region. Female gender, age, high cholesterol level, family history of gallstones, and increased BMI independent risk factors for gallstones formation.


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