An institutional review of endoscopic and open technique in the management of vesical calculus: a retrospective study


  • Rikesh Jung Karkee Urology Division-Department of Surgery, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Science, Dharan, Nepal
  • Samir Chaudhary Urology Division-Department of Surgery, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Science, Dharan, Nepal
  • Awaj Kafle Urology Division-Department of Surgery, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Science, Dharan, Nepal
  • Deependra Prasad Sarraf Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Science, Dharan, Nepal



Open cystolithotomy, Perurethral cystolithotripsy, Suprapubic percutaneous cystolithotripy, Vesical calculus


Background: Vesical calculus means urolith in bladder. Cystolithotomy is the traditional treatment, but a percutaneous approach has been advocated. The objective was to compare open cystolithotomy with perurethral cystolithotripsy and suprapubic percutaneous cystolithotripsyused in the treatment of bladder stones.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among 100 patients of bladder stone treated at a tertiary centre in Eastern Nepal from January 2014 to December 2019 who underwent open cystolithotomy and endoscopic procedures (perurethral cystolithotripsy and suprapubic percutaneous cystolithotripsy). Data were analysed using SPSS version 11.5 at p value less than 0.05 taken as significant.

Results: Statistical significant difference was observed in operating time, duration of catheterization and duration of hospital stay in both open and endoscopic management of vesical calculus (p value=0.0001). General complications were observed in 90% cases of open cystolithotomy and 33.9% cases of endoscopic procedure respectively.

Conclusions: Endoscopic procedure is safe and efficacious method of urinary bladder stone removal with low incidence of complications.


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