A retrospective study of the epidemiology of esophageal cancer and its management in a Central Indian Institute


  • Fahad Ansari Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Arvind Rai Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India




Esophageal cancer, Esophagus, Jejunostomy, Gastroesophageal junction


Background: The aim of the study was to better understand the epidemiology of esophageal cancer and its management in Indian patients.

Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in a Central Indian institute in which 42 patients of esophageal cancer admitted during a 2 year period were evaluated and treated. All underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) scan to assess site and extent of tumor.

Results: There were a total of 42 patients in the study of which the mean age group was 50-65 years with the disease occurring more commonly in males (65%). The male -female ratio was 1.8:1. The most common histological type was squamous cell carcinoma with 32 patients (76.2%) followed by adenocarcinoma with 10 patients (23.8%). The most common site of the esophagus involved was the lower third and gastro-esophageal junction in 23 patients (54.76%) followed by mid esophagus in 14 patients (33.3%). Most patients were inoperable as the most common stage of presentation was IV in 18 patients. Esophagectomy was possible in 8 patients while 26 underwent feeding jejunostomy and 8 underwent esophageal stenting before being sent for chemoradiation. The 1 year survival rate in this study was 16.6%.

Conclusions: Cancer esophagus is still a disease that presents late for treatment in India with majority of patients managed with palliative interventions followed by chemoradiation. The survival rate is poor. Squamous cell carcinoma is far more common with adenocarcinoma showing increasing trends, both occurring more commonly in the lower esophagus.


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