A prospective observational study on thyroid malignancy


  • Bharath S. V. Department of General Surgery, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India
  • Badareesh Lakshminarayana Department of General Surgery, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India
  • Rishabh Mehta Department of General Surgery, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India




Differentiated thyroid cancer, Thyroid malignancy, Thyroidectomy, Cervical lymphnodes


Background: Thyroid cancers are a complex group of tumours with wide variety of histological presentation and biological behaviour, and prognosis range. In their early stages, they behave like other benign conditions of the thyroid. The success of treatment lies upon early diagnosis and proper management. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modes of presentation, the incidence of various pathological types, and assess their clinical, behaviour and surgical management.

Methods: The present study is observational, time-bound, consists of patients prospectively and consecutively diagnosed and histologically confirmed thyroid malignancy.

Results: This study showed females 80.66% are commonly affected than males 19.44%. The most frequent malignancy is papillary 86.11%, followed by follicular carcinoma 11.11%, medullary carcinoma 2.78%. Cervical lymph nodes are involved in four 13.88% of patients. In patients undergone iodine ablation, 5.56% of them had a recurrence. Mortality at two years was 2.7%. In this study, Thyroid cancer is commonly seen between twenty-one to thirty years.

Conclusions: The incidence of thyroid malignancies is more common among women (80.66%) than men. Papillary carcinoma (86.11%) is the common differentiated thyroid cancer. The prevalence of distant metastasis is 2.78% to the vertebral body. In our study, 41.66% of patients belongs to less than 30 years of age; this may be due to the trend of overdiagnosis due to the introduction of ultrasonography guided Fine needle aspiration study.


Kilfoy BA, Devesa SS, Ward MH. Gender is an age-specific effect modifier for papillary cancers of the thyroid gland. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1092-100.

Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I. Global cancer statistics 2018: global estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68:394-424.

Veedu JS, Wang K, Lei F, Chen Q, Huang B, Mathew A. Trends in thyroid cancer incidence in India. J Clin Oncol. 2018;e18095.

Ahn HS, Kim HJ, Welch HG. Korea's thyroid-cancer "epidemic" - screening and overdiagnosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1765-7.

Colonna M, Uhry Z, Guizard AV. Recent trends in incidence, geographical distribution, and survival of papillary thyroid cancer in France. Cancer Epidemiol 2015;39:511-8.

Vaccarella S, Dal ML, Laversanne M. The impact of diagnostic changes on the rise in thyroid cancer incidence: A population-based study in selected high-resource countries. Thyroid. 2015;25:1127-36.

Lim H, Devesa SS, Sosa JA. Trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1974-2013. JAMA. 2017;317:1338-48.

Dal Maso L, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S. Risk factors for thyroid cancer: an epidemiological review focused on nutritional factors. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20.1:75-86.

Karkuzhali P, Yogambal M, Kumar M. An Indian Tertiary Care Hospital Scenario of Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11:EC26-9.

Krassas GE. Thyroid disease and female reproduction. Fertil Steril. 2000;74:1063-70.

Iyengar, Ravi S. A Retrospective Study of Clinicopathological Profile and Treatment Outcomes of Thyroid Malignancies Presented to a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. IJCMR. 2019;6.10:J1-6.

Franceschi S, Dal Maso L. Hormonal imbalances and thyroid cancers in humans. IARC Sci Publ. 1999;(147):33-43.

Carcangiu ML, Zampi G, Pupi A, Castagnoli A, Rosai J. Clinicopathologic study of 241 cases treated at the University of Florence. Cancer. 1985;55:805-28.

Mehrotra PK, Mishra A, Mishra SK, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK. Medullary thyroid cancer: clinicopathological profile and outcome in a tertiary care center in North India. World J Surg. 2011;35:1273- 80.

Musacchio MJ, Kim AW, Vijungco JD, Prinz RA. Greater local recurrence occurs with "berry picking" than neck dissection in thyroid cancer. Am Surg. 2003;69(3):191-6.

Mazzaferri EL. A Vision for the Surgical Management of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Extensive Lymph Node Compartmental Dissections and Selective Use of Radioiodine. J Clin Endocrinol Meta. 2009;94(4):1086-8.

Samaan NA, Schultz PNHickey RC. The results of various modalities of treatment of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas: a retrospective review of 1599 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;75:714-20.

Tumino D, Frasca F, Newbold K. Updates on the Management of Advanced, Metastatic, and Radioiodine Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. 2017;8:312.






Original Research Articles