Published: 2021-03-26

H type tracheo-oesophageal fistula: 2 cases with review of literature

Apoorva Makan, Syamantak Basu, Pankaj Dwivedi, Akriti Tulsian, Vini Joseph, Suraj Gandhi, Neha Sisodiya Shenoy, Hemanshi Shah


Tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TEF) with oesophageal atresia is a common life threatening congenital malformation. H type TEF is a rare subtype (1.8 to 4.2% of all TEF) with the least association with congenital anomalies. We report two cases of H type TEF, first patient was a 2 month old girl who presented with the classical triad of symptoms, and the second patient was a 2 year old girl who presented with recurrent attacks of pneumonia, choking on feeding and noisy breathing. After radiological confirmation, optimization of pulmonary status and nutritional improvement, both underwent right cervicotomy with disconnection of the H fistula. Both patients are doing well on regular follow up. Detection of H fistula is difficult as compared to TEF since the clinical symptoms are variable, radiological detection difficult and diagnosis is based on a high degree of clinical suspicion. We present these two cases to document the history, presentation, clinical management and surgical procedure done in these patients.


H fistula, Rare, Difficult to diagnose

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