Dysgerminoma: diagnostic impasse

Indrajit Anandakannan, Shanthi Ponnandai Swaminathan, Vikas Kawarat, Rajeshwari Mani, Kannan R.


Dysgerminoma is a rare malignant ovarian tumour in women of reproductive age group, featuring lower abdominal pain and abdominal mass with elevated tumour markers. The tumour grows rapidly and diagnosed at an earlier stage. We present a short-statured 20 years girl with intermittent abdominal pain and distention for 4 months, on examination huge abdominal mass of size 20x15 cm, firm in consistency was palpable, lower limit not ascertained. Routine blood investigations normal, thyroid function test showed hypothyroidism. A plain abdominal radiograph shows a large homogenous mass fitting mid part of abdomen with displaced bowel loop. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen and pelvis show up 20x18.5x9.5 cm well defined heterogeneous mass, with areas of necrosis suggesting mesenchymal tumour or germ cell tumour. CA 125, alpha-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase, beta human chorionic gonadotropin were raised. Magnetic resonance imaging abdomen and pelvis show 10x16x17cm hetero intense lesion, bilateral ovary normal. After tumour board discussion image-guided biopsy was done, suggestive of epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumour. Laparotomy displayed a large mass 22x16x10 cm arising from left ovary, no enlarged lymph node, completed with left salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathology examination and immunohistochemistry definitive of dysgerminoma. In this clinical scenario, we narrate the importance of clinical examination and increased dependence on imaging modalities in diagnosing the patient. The treatment is based on the international federation of gynaecology and obstetrics staging with surgical treatment, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.


Dysgerminoma, GIST, Malignant ovarian tumour, Huge abdominal mass

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