Urinary screening for detection of renal abnormalities in asymptomatic pre-school children referred to Ardabil city health centers from 2016 to 2017


  • Susan Mohammadi-Kebar Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
  • Javed Zarea-noghabi Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
  • Saeid Hoseininia Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
  • Davoud Mahmoudi Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran




Asymptomatic children, Hematuria, Proteinuria, Pyuria, Screening, Urinalysis


Background: Urinary screening for detection of proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria for early diagnosis curable or preventable renal disease in three decade has been considered. The aim of this study was urinary screening for Detection of renal abnormalities in asymptomatic pre-school children referred to health center in Ardabil city from 2016 to 2017.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that has been done on urine specimens of 350 children who referred to Ardabil city health center to injection DTP vaccine from April 2016 to Sep 2017. In these infants, proteinuria, hematuria, pyuria and urinary casts were examined and abnormal finding were referred to future investigation to nephrologist. Information was collected and analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS version 21.

Results: A total of 350 children were enrolled in the study. There were 196 (56%) boys and 154 (44%) girls. The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in all children was 8.3%. Of all urinary abnormalities, proteinuria and hematuria were detected in 12 children (3.44 %). Of all infants, 9 children (2.57%) had pyuria. Also, 6 children (1.8%) had urinary casts that of them two cases had acid ureic cast and four cases had calcium oxalate cast.

Conclusions: This study showed that the prevalence of urinary abnormalities in Ardabil city children was similar to other studies in other country or cities. The reasons of this may be different in race and ethnic. We suggest that routine urinalysis should be part of screening of children at the school entry in Ardabil.


Zhang L, Wang F, Wang L, Wang W, Liu B, Liu J, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: A cross-sectional survey. Lancet. 2012;379:815-22.

Cho BS, Kim SD, Choi YM, Kang HH. School urinalysis screening in Korea: Prevalence of chronic renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2001;16:1126-8.

Lin CY, Sheng CC, Lin CC, Chen CH, Chou P. Mass urinary screening and follow-up for school children in Taiwan Province. Acta Paediatr. Taiwan 2001;42:134-40.

Gorelick M, Shaw KN. Screening tests for urinary tract infection in Children: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 1999;104:54.

Yamagata K, Iseki K, Nitta K, Imai H, Iino Y, Matsuo S, et al. Chronic kidney disease perspectives in Japan and the importance of urinalysis screening. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2008;12:1-8.

Shaw ST Jr, Poon SY, Wong ET. ‘Routine urinalysis’. Is the dipstick enough? JAMA. 1985;253(11):1596-600.

Nodoshan AA, Shajari A, Golzar A, Shakiba M. Urinary screening in primary school children in Yazd, Iran. Shiraz E-Med J. 2015;16(1):e23866.

Sadeghi MS, Hadian M, Rakhshani F. Prevalence of proteinuria and hematuria in urine screening of asymptomatic children in Zahedan schools. Zahedan J Res Med Sci (Tabib-E-Shargh). 2008;8:59-64.

Shajari A, Fallah-Zadeh MH, Shajari H. Screening of renal disease in the first primary school children in shiraz. Acta Medica Iranica. 2007;45(3):215-8.

Hajar F, Taleb M, Aoun B, Shatila A. Dipstick urine analysis screening among asymptomatic school children. North Am J Med Sci. 2011;3(4):179-84.

Zainal D, Baba A, Mustaffa BE. Screening proteinuria and hematuria in Malaysian children. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1995;26(4):785-8.

Murakami M, Yamamoto H, Ueda Y, Murakami K, Yamauchi K. Urinary screening of elementary and junior high-school children over a 13 year period in Tokyo. Pediatr Nephrol. 1991;5:50-3.

Bakr A, Sarhan A, Hammad A, Ragab M, Salama OS, Al-Husseni F, et al. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among primary school children in Egypt. World J Pediatr. 2007;3(3):214-7.

Plata R, Silva C, Yahuita J, Perez L, Shieppati A, Remuzzi G. The first clinical and epidemiological programme on renal disease in Bolivia: A model for prevention and early diagnosis of renal diseases in the developing countries. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13(12):3034-6.

Akor F, Okolo S, Agaba E, Okolo A. Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school entrants in Jos, Nigeria. South Afr J Child Health. 2009;3(2):60-3.

Bazie EA, Ali MM, Hamza HB, Ismail AM, Salih MS, Haroun BE. Screening of proteinuria and hematuria in asymptomatic children in basic school-Kosti City-In White Nile (Kosti City). J Med Biol Sci Res. 2015;1(9):118-23.

Rao J, Zhou L, Shen Q, Sun L, Fang XY, Liu HM, et al. School urinalysis screening in Shanghai. World J Pediatr. 2006;3:195-8.

Hanif R, Ally SH, Jalal-ud-Din, Khan K. Effectiveness of routine urine analysis of patient attending rural health centers in Abbottabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2006;18:63-4.

Behrman R, Kliegman R, Jenson H. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia: Pensylvania Sanders; 2011.

Vehaskari VM, Rapola J, Koskimies O, Savilahti E, Vilska J, Hallman N. Microscopic hematuria in schoolchildren: epidemiology and clinicopathologic evaluation. J Pediatr. 1979; 95:676-84.

Murakami M, Hayakawa M, Yanagihara T, Hukunaga Y. Proteinuria screening for children. Kidney Int. 2005;68:S23-7.

Alharthi AA, Taha AA, Edrees AE, Elnawawy AN, Abdelrahman AH. Screening for urine abnormalities among preschool children in western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2014;35(12):1477-81.






Original Research Articles