DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20204150

A rare case of discontinuous type splenogonadal fusion in a 13 year old boy: a case report and review of literature

Asmir Jonuzi, Nusret Popović, Zlatan Zvizdić, Emir Milišić, Melika Bukvić, Irmina Sefić, Amra Džananović, Amira Mesic, Adisa Chikha, Amila Zukanović, Benjamin Kulovac

Abstract


Splenogonadal fusion (SGF) is a rare developmental anomaly in which an abnormal connection between the splenic tissue and gonads or mesonephric derivatives is present. This entity often presents with scrotal mass, inguinal hernia, or cryptorchidism. Less than 200 cases have been reported since it was first described in 1883. It can be of continuous and discontinuous type based on the presence of a band of connecting splenic tissue. Report a rare case of discontinuous type of SGF in an adolescent male presenting as nonpalpable testis. On evaluation, ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging of abdomen and pelvis, his left scrotal testis was atrophied and right intra-abdominal undescended testis. This is the first reported case of SGF from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Laparoscopy was demonstrated to be the only accurate exploratory procedure for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of SGF with non‑palpable testis.


Keywords


Cryptorchidism, Developmental anomaly, Laparascopy, Splenogonadal fusion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Carragher AM. One hundred years of splenogonadal fusion. Urology. 1990;35(6):471-5.

Duncan WL, Barraza MA. Splenogonadal fusion: a case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40(12):e5-7.

Lopes RI, de Medeiros MT, Arap MA, Cocuzza M, Srougi M, Hallak J. Splenogonadal fusion and testicular cancer: case report and review of the literature. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2012;10(1):92-5.

Keyik B, Yanik B, Conkbayir I, Tuygun C, Kizilgoz V, Hekimoğlu B. Continuous-type splenogonadal fusion associated with an ipsilateral testicular atrophy: sonographic findings. J Clin Ultrasound. 2010;38(3):161-3.

Lin CS, Lazarowicz JL, Allan RW, Maclennan GT. Splenogonadal fusion. J Urol. 2010;184(1):332- 3.

Chiaramonte C, Siracusa F, Li Voti G. Splenogonadal Fusion: A Genetic Disorder?-Report of a Case and Review of the Literature. Urol Case Rep. 2014;2(2):67-9.

Huang G, Huang Y, Zeng L, Yuan M, Wu Y, Huang L. Continuous-type splenogonadal fusion: A case report. Exp Ther Med. 2017;13(5):2019-21.

Uglialoro AD, Goltzman ME, Niazi M, Lehman D, Silletti J, Bjurlin MA. Splenogonadal Fusion Presenting as an Asymptomatic Testicular Mass. Urology. 2016;97:1-4.

Alivizatos G, Skolarikos A, Sopilidis O, Ferakis N, Chorti M. Splenogonadal fusion: report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Urol. 2005;12(1):90-2.

Melikov R, Altunkol A, Quliyev F, Mammadov E, Abat D. Continuous- type splenogonadal fusion: a rare cause of scrotal swelling. Pediatr Urol Case Rep. 2015;2(02):22.

Ferrón SA, Arce JD. Discontinuous splenogonadal fusion: new sonographic findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43(12):1652-55.

Chen SL, Kao YL, Sun HS, Lin WL. Splenogonadal fusion. J Formos Med Assoc. 2008;107(11):892-5.

Khairat ABM, Ismail AM. Splenogonadal fusion: case presentation and literature review. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40(8):1357-60.

Putschar WG, Manion WC. Splenicgonadal fusion. Am J Pathol. 1956;32(1):15-33.

Nimkin K, Kleinman PK, Chappell JS. Abdominal ultrasonography of splenogonadal fusion. J Ultrasound Med. 2000;19(5):345-7.

Hizli F, Uygur MC, Irkkan C. Splenogonadal fusion: report of a case. Int J Urol. 2005;12(6):591-2.

Khelif K, Maassarani F, De Keuleneer R, Segers V. Splenogonadal fusion: a case report. Acta Chir Belg. 2010;110(6):607-8.

Molaeian M, Shojaei H. Splenogonadal fusion presented with cryptorchidism. Urol J. 2009;6(2):130-1.

Al-Marhoon M, Matthew J, Nirmala V, Kehinde EO. Splenogonadal fusion associated with primary male infertility. BJU Int. 2000;86(4):560-1.

Le Roux PJ, Heddle RM. Splenogonadal fusion: is the accepted classification system accurate? BJU Int. 2000;85(1):114-5.

Karaman MI, Gonzales ET. Splenogonadal fusion: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. J Urol. 1996 Jan;155(1):309-11.

Falkowski WS, Carter MF. Splenogonadal fusion associated with an anaplastic seminoma. J Urol. 1980;124(4):562-4.

Imperial SL, Sidhu JS. Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor arising in splenogonadal fusion. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2002;126(10):1222-5.

Papparella A, Nino F, Coppola S, Donniacono D, Parmeggiani P. Laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of splenogonadal fusion: case report. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2011;21(3):203-4.

Chung JM, Lee SD. Overview of pediatric testicular tumors in Korea. Korean J Urol. 2014;55(12):789-96.