Published: 2020-04-23

Clinical profile of patients with forearm and hand injuries

Bhaskar Bisht, Manu Rajan, Sanjay Dvivedi, Kinnari A. V. Rawat, Sireesha Konda


Background: Hand injuries are among the most frequent injuries, constituting between 6.6% and 28.6% of all injuries. Hand and forearm injuries, however small or large they may be do have a significant impact on the society in terms of cost of treatment, hospital stay and costs of lost production and hence the importance of this study.

Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences (HIMS), Swami Ram Nagar, Dehradun, over the period of 12 months. Subjects were recruited from patients presenting in emergency/surgery OPD, HIMS, Dehradun with a primary diagnosis of soft tissue injuries in the forearm and the hand. A total of 114 patients were included in the study.

Results: Overall mean age of the subjects in our study was 28.21±15.71. The highest incidence was in the age group of (20-40) years i.e. 62 (54.30%). Male to female ratio in our study was 6.6:1. Maximum injuries occurred as workplace and industrial injuries. This contributed to 34.2% (39 subjects) of overall injuries. 50% patients had crush injuries while lacerations, burn and avulsion were other form of injuries. 43 patients had bone and joint involvement,16 patients had neurovascular injuries and 20 patients had tendon injuries.   

Conclusions: Hand and forearm injuries are more common in males and in the age group of 20 to 40 years leading to loss of productive working days causing a significant financial burden on the society.


Profile, Hand and forearm injuries, Emergency

Full Text:



Bajracharya S, Shrestha S. Epidemiology of hand injuries in a tertiary care center. J Universal College Med Sci. 2017;5(2):16.

Trybus M, Lorkowski J, Brongel L. Causes and consequences of hand injuries. Am J Surg. 2006;192:52-7.

Rosberg HE, Carlsson KS, Dahlin LB. Prospective study of patients with injuries to the hand and forearm: costs, function, and general health. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2005;39:360-9.

Putter DCE, Selles RW, Polinder S. Economic impact of hand and wrist injuries: health-care costs and productivity costs in a population-based study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:56.

Frazier W, Miller M, Fox R. Hand injuries: incidence and epidemiology in an emergency service. JACEP. 1978;7:265-8.

Ravikumar G, Manoharan R, Sugapradha GR. A clinical and epidemiological study of upper limb injuries resulting from agricultural accidents. Int Surg J. 2017;4(11):3622-6.

Prasad R, Bhamidi A, Rajeswaran A. Epidemiology and Sequelae of Work place Hand Injuries at a Tertiary Trauma Care Centre. Surg Sci. 2014;5:150-8.

Gupta A, Gupta AK, Sanjeev K. Demographic Profile of Hand Injuries in an Industrial Town of North India: A Review of 436 Patients. Indian J Surg. 2013;75(6):454-61.

Ng ZY, Tan SSY, Lellouch AG. Soft Tissue Reconstruction of Complete Circumferential Defects of the Upper Extremity. Archives of plastic surg. 2017;44:2.

Shrihari V. Spectrum of hand injuries and their management at a tertiary care hospital using the hand injury scoring system. Int Surg J. 2016;3(4):1761-6.

Garg R, Chung JPY, Fung BKK. Epidemiology of Occupational Hand Injuries in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J. 2012;18:131-6.

Hung LK, Choi KY, Yip K. Recent changes in the pattern of hand injuries in Hong Kong: a regional hospital survey. HKMJ. 1997;3(2):141-8.

Bazroy J, Roy G, Sahai A. Magnitude and risk factors of injuries in a glass bottle manufacturing plant. J Occupational Health. 2003;45(1):53-9.

Gupta R, Mahajan S, Dewan D. Pattern of hand injuries reported in a tertiary care setting of North India. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;5(3):880-4.