Primary closure of common bile duct versus T-tube placement after open choledocholithotomy


  • Manoj Seervi Department of Surgery, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Deepak Verma Department of Surgery, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Nemi Chand Department of Surgery, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Sarthak Sharma Department of Surgery, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India



Choledocholithiasis, Choledocholithotomy, Primary closure, T-tube


Background: Choledocholithiasis is primarily managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) but in certain situation particularly large and impacted common duct stone, the procedure may not succeed and this small group of patients require either open or laparoscopic common bile duct exploration followed by T-tube insertion. Usually T-Tube cholangiogram is performed on 10th postoperative day and tube is removed on 12-14th day. Alternatively, primary closure of duct after post exploratory choledochoscopy to ensure duct clearance with or without biliary stent can be done.

Methods: This study was performed on 25 patients of failed endoscopic extraction, subjected to open choledocholithotomy. Group A (n=7) had T-tube insertion whereas group B (n=18) had primary closure of duct after choledochotomy.

Results: 19 patients had calculus cholecystitis whereas 6 patients had prior cholecystectomy and later developed choledocholithiasis. 52% patients had impacted stone and 40% had large stone as a cause of ERCP failure. Postoperative pyrexia, cholangitis, septicemia, sub-hepatic bilious drainage and postoperative hospital stay was higher in T-tube group as compared to primary closure group.

Conclusions: Primary closure over the biliary stent after cholecystectomy and/or choledocholithotomy has less morbidity as compared to T-tube insertion and hence should be preferred choice in choledocholithiasis, provided stone free duct is ensured peroperative using choledochoscopy.

Author Biography

Manoj Seervi, Department of Surgery, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Senior Professor

Department of Surgery,

Dr.S.N.Medical College,

JODHPUR. Rajasthan


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Original Research Articles