A study on risk factors for malignancy in solitary thyroid nodules at a tertiary care hospital
Keywords:Colloid goitre, Euthyroid, Lymphadenopathy, Micro calcification, Solitary thyroid nodule
Background: Thyroid nodules are a common entity encountered in clinical practice and the prevalence by palpation is only 3-7%, but on ultrasonographic evaluation it is 20-76% with wide variability. Accurate prediction of malignancy with minimal diagnostic modalities and assessing the risk factors in malignancy may help in reducing extensive procedures. The objective of the study is to assess the risk factors associated with development of malignancy in solitary thyroid nodules and to find out the percentage of malignancy among the cases of solitary nodules.
Methods: A three year prospective study was conducted at ACSR medical college and all cases diagnosed as solitary thyroid nodules were enrolled and institutional ethical approval was obtained. Socio demographic data, clinical history and ultrasonogram findings were collected and entered in a separate data sheet for analysis. Fine needle aspiration cytology, histopathological examination was done and reported findings were noted. Statistical analysis was done in SPPS version 20 and ‘p’ value <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: 128 cases of solitary thyroid nodules (STN) with 41 male and 87 female cases and F:M ratio of 2.13:1 with mean age of 46.6±10.8 years was enrolled. 43.75% were euthyroid, 47.66% were hypothyroid and 8.59% were hyperthyroid on hormonal evaluation. Micro calcification was observed in 50.78%, increased vascularity in 38.28% and irregular margins in 34.38% of cases. Colloid goitre was predominant observation on fine needle aspiration cytology (40.6%) and follicular adenoma (32%) on histopathology.
Conclusions: Features of micro calcification, solid echogenicity, and associated lymphadenopathy are associated features with increased risk of malignancy among STN.
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