Incidence and management of intestinal perforation in typhoid: a prospective, observational study

Bhanwar L. Yadav, Somendra Bansal, Shalu Gupta, Pradeep K. Verma


Background: Intestinal perforation is a common surgical problem, which need proper attention. Typhoid is the most common cause of bowel perforation. With the concept of a correct diagnosis of perforation in reference to its etiology and further study of etiological factor (typhoid) in relation to epidemiology, surgical treatment and outcome, the present study has been undertaken.

Methods: It is a prospective, observational study in which 50 cases of enteric perforation admitting in SMS Hospital at JAIPUR were observed. All patients of enteric perforation peritonitis were evaluated by detailed history, clinical examination and radiological as well as laboratory investigations. After initial resuscitation patient were treated by operative procedures. Postoperatively progress report, morbidity and mortality data were observed.

Results: Mean age of patients was 26.38 years. Male to female ratio was 4:1. Enteric perforation is more common in patients with poor nutritional status and rural area. Primary repair of perforation was done in patient with small perforation with relatively healthy bowel, while ileostomy was done in patients with large perforation of longer duration, multiple perforations and edematous bowel with necrotic patches. Mortality was highest in patients who underwent primary repair and proximal loop ileostomy (33.3%) and lowest in patients in which exteriorization of the perforation as loop ileostomy was done (10.3%).

Conclusions: The time interval between occurrence of perforation and starting of specific therapy is the most important factor in deciding the ultimate outcome of the typhoid perforation patient and operative procedure is another important factor in deciding the outcome.


Enteric fever, Enteric perforation, Intestinal perforation, Typhoid

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