Prevalence of thyroid malignancy in goitre: a cross sectional study
Keywords:Thyroid malignancy, Goitre, Endocrine malignancy
Background: Goitre includes a heterogenous group of tumours that show considerate variability in histological appearance and biological behavior.1 As thyroid malignancy presents as any other benign condition of thyroid in its early stages, success in treatment of this condition lies largely upon early diagnosis and appropriate management. Hence this study was done to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid malignancy in goiter, their modes of presentation and the incidence of various pathological types.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 275 patients was conducted. Data about the patient's age, sex, clinical presentations and duration of symptoms were collected using a proforma. The functional status of the patient was assessed with thyroid function tests. Anatomy of the gland was assessed by ultrasonogram. Ultrasound guided FNAC was done to assess the cytology. Histopathological evaluation of the thyroidectomy specimen was done.
Results: The prevalence of thyroid malignancy was found to be 18.1% with a female preponderance of 94%. The age of presentation was noted to be predominantly between 3rd and 5th decade with a mean age of 42.95 years. Female- male ratio was 15:1. Swelling in front of the neck was the predominant clinical presentation in 82% of patients. Among the thyroid malignancies papillary carcinoma was found to be the commonest malignancy with incidence of 90%.
Conclusions: Thyroid malignancy is the commonest endocrine malignancy. Our study revealed a significant prevalence of thyroid malignancy among patients presenting with goiter between 3rd and 5th decade with a female preponderance.
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