The pattern of urine cytology among patients with clinical diagnosis of bladder tumor in a tertiary hospital northwest Nigeria

Ahmed M. Umar, Uzodimma E. Onwuasoanya, Emmanuel U. Oyibo, Adamu Dahiru, Ismaila A. Mungadi


Background: Urine cytology is a simple, safe, non-invasive and cheap investigation that is used as adjunct to cystoscopy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Its low sensitivity is a major limitation against its use as a sole diagnostic test for bladder cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of urine cytology seen in patients with clinical diagnosis of bladder tumour in our practice.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with clinical diagnosis of bladder tumour that had urine cytology in our centre. The age and gender of the patients, number of urine cytology per patient per year and cytologic diagnosis were analysed using the SPSS 20.

Results: During the period under review, a total of 512 urine cytology was done for patients with clinical diagnosis of bladder tumour. The age range of the patients was 6 to 90 years with modal age of 60 years. 457 (89.3%) were males while 54 (10.5%) were females and 1 (0.2%) was unspecified. Male to female ratio was 8.5:1. The highest number of urine cytology was done in 2013 with 64 (12.5%) while the least number was 1 (0.2%) recorded in 2001 and 2003. Only 68 (13.3%) specimens were reported to be malignant while 245 (47.9%) were reported as negative representing the most common cytological diagnosis in the study.

Conclusions: Although urine cytology is useful in the diagnostic workup of patients with bladder mass, it is unlikely it would supplant cystoscopy and biopsy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer.



Urine cytology, Bladder tumour, Cystoscopy, Biopsy

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