DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20193114

A cross sectional study to compare serum beta 2 microglobulin levels in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

S. R. Kulkarni, Yogesh Prakash Garud

Abstract


Background: One of the major health problems in the world is cancer. More than 11 million people are diagnosed yearly with cancer. Oral cancer is one of the deadliest cancers. Oral cancer is generally preceded by precancerous lesions. India has highest number of oral cancer patients. β2 microglobulin (β2 m) is one of the tumor markers.

Methods: We are correlating serum levels of beta 2 microglobulin in leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. In our study, the serum β2 m levels were estimated in 2 groups of 30 subjects each with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) designated as Group A, 30 subjects with oral leukoplakia designated as Group B.

Results: There were majority of participants from age group of 51 to 70 years (Group A-60%, Group B-53.33%). Group A had majority of females 20 (66.67%) while males were 10 (33.33%). Group B had majority of males 18 (60.00%) while females were 12 (40.00%). Major adverse habit was tobacco chewing (83.33% Group A and 73.33% in group B). Most common site was Left BM. Right BM was second. There was significant association between the groups and serum β2 m levels. Mean levels of Group A patients were 3.13±0.47 mg/L and Group B 1.43±0.29 mg/L.

Conclusions: Adverse habits like tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol increase chances of oral cancers and precancerous lesions. Significant correlation between oral cell carcinoma cases and serum β2 m levels is seen.


Keywords


β2 microglobulin, Oral cancer, Tumor markers

Full Text:

PDF

References


Higuchi Y, Togawa T, Moriya H, Hoshi K, Satoh T, Kimura K. Clinical evaluation of serum beta 2-microglobulin in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Gan no rinsho. Japan J Cancer Clin. 1986;32(15):1919-24.

Rajpura BK, Patel SP, Chawda GJ, Shah MR. Clinical significance of total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in oral pre‐cancerous conditions and oral cancer. J Oral Pathol Med. 2005;34(5):263-7.

Manzar W, Raghavan MV, Aroor AR, Keshavamurthy KR. Evaluation of serum β2‐microglobulin in oral cancer. Aus Dent J. 1992;37(1):39-42.

Moore SR, Pierce AM, Wilson DF. ‘Oral cancer’—the terminology dilemma. Oral Dis. 2000;6(3):191-3.

Daftary DK, Murti PR, Bhonsle RB. Oral Squamous cell carcinomas. In: Prabhu SR, Wilson DF, Daftary DK et al eds. Oral diseases in the tropics. Oxford medical publications, Oxford, 1992: 429-458.

Moore SR, Johnson NW, Pierce AM, Wilson DF. The epidemiology of mouth cancer: a review of global incidence. Oral Dis. 2000;6(2):65-74.

Tumuluri V, Thomas GA, Fraser IS. The relationship of proliferating cell density at the invasive tumour front with prognostic and risk factors in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33(4):204-8.

Johnson NW. How great is the risk? In: Johnson NW, ed. Risk Markers for oral Diseases. Volume 2. Oral Cancer. Detection for patients and lesions at risk. Cambridge: University Press; 1991: 3–27.

Sudbø J. Novel management of oral cancer: a paradigm of predictive oncology. Clinic Med Res. 2004;2(4):233-42.

Hyde N. and Hopper C. Oral cancer: the importance of early referral. The Practitioner. 1999;243:53-60.

Sankaranarayanan R, Duffy SW, Day NE, Nair MK, Padmakumary G. A case‐control investigation of cancer of the oral tongue and the floor of the mouth in Southern India. Int J Cancer. 1989;44(4):617-21.

Mathew B. Epidemiol oral cancer. JIDA. 1993;64(2):43-6.

Kithier K, Cejka J, Belamaric J, Al-Sarraf M, Peterson Jr WO, Vaitkevicius VK, et al. β2-microglobulin: Occurrence in fetal life and malignancy. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1974;52(3):293-9.

Kikuchi Y, Kizawa I, Koyama E, Kato K. Significance of serum tumor markers in patients with carcinoma of the ovary. Obstet Gynaecol. 1984;63:561-6.

Burkhardt A. Advanced methods in the evaluation of premalignant lesions and carcinomas of the oral mucosa. J Oral Pathol Med. 1985;14(10):751-78.

Lin SC. Serum levels of beta-2 microglobulin in oral tumor patients. Chinese J Microbiol Immunol. 1986;19(3):183-8.

Prime SS, Pitigala‐Arachchi A, Crane IJ, Rosser TJ, Scully C. The expression of cell surface MHC class I heavy and light chain molecules in pre‐malignant and malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. Histopathol. 1987;11(1):81-91.

Rassekh CH, Johnson JT, Eibling DE. Circulating markers in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a review. Euro J Cancer Part B: Oral Oncol. 1994;30(1):23-8.

Arany I, Adler-Storthz K, Chen Z, Tyring SK, Brysk MM. Tumor differentiation-dependent local immunity in human head and neck cancers. Cancer Letters. 1998;123(2):173-6.

Sundram FX, Aw SE. Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) as tumour markers in nasopharyngeal cancer. Ann Acad Med (Singapore). 1986;15(4):507-10.