Study of the Lichtenstein’s hernioplasty and its post-operative complications for different types of inguinal hernia

Anantha Kumar Nateson, Suresh Nayak Basavanayak, Sudarsansrikanth .


Background: Lichtenstein’s hernioplasty is the commonly done surgery for inguinal hernias. The present study is aimed to study the Lichtenstein’s hernioplasty and its postoperative complications for different types of inguinal hernia.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Department of General Surgery, MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Hoskote, Bangalore Rural, Karnataka. A total of 90 patients were selected for this study. Subjects with the age of 21 to 75 years with inguinal hernia are included in the study. A pre-designed proforma was used to collect their details. All selected cases were studied up to discharge regarding the type of hernia and followed up in OPD for 1 year regarding post-operative complications.

Results: Immediate post-op complications like seroma/hematoma was observed in 10 (11.1%), wound infection was in 5 (5.5%) and orchitis was in 2 (2.2%). Post-operative complications like stiffness in lower abdomen was observed in 21 (23.3%) patients. Long term complications like forein body sensation was experienced by 22 (24.4) patients post-operatively at 1 month follow up, 8 (8.8%) patients at 3 months follow up and 3 (3.3) patients at 1 year follow up.  Chronic pain was experienced by 17 (18.8%) patients at the end of 1 month follow up, at 3 month follow up, 13 (14.4%) patients and at the end of 1 year of follow up 4 (4.4%) patients at operated site. Recurrence was not observed in any of the patient.

Conclusions: The study findings indicate that Lichtenstein’s hernioplasty was safe and reliable procedure for inguinal hernia repair. 


Chronic pain, Lichtenstein’s hernioplasty, Post-operative complications, Recurrence, Seroma/hematoma, Stiffness in lower abdomen

Full Text:



Gamal Al-Shemy, Ahmed Hassan, Abd Al-Kareem Elias, Ali Nagi. Evaluation of open hernioplasty in bilateral inguinal hernia repair. Al-Azhar Assiut Medic J. 2018;16(1):66-72.

Khan N, Bangash A, Muzaffaruddin S, Ain UH, Haris H. Polygalactine/Polypropylene Mesh vs. Propylene Mesh: Is There a Need for Newer Prosthesis in Inguinal Hernia? Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(1):8-13.

Klinge U, Klosterhalfen B, Muller M, Schumpelick V. Foreign body reaction to meshes used for the repair of abdominal wall hernias. Eur J Surg. 1999;165:665-73.

Chawla S. Inguinal hernia in females. Med J Armed Forces India. 2001;57(4):306-8.

Pradeep K Chowbey, Murtaza Pithawala, Rajesh Khullar, Anil Sharma, Vandana Soni, and Manish Baijal. Complications in groin hernia surgery and the way out. J Minim Access Surg. 2006; 2(3): 174–7.

Lichtenstein IL, Shulman AG, Amid PK, Montllor MM. The tension free hernioplasty. Am J Surg. 1989;157:188-93.

Kurzer M, Belsham PA, Kark AE: The Lichtenstein repair. Surg Clin North Am. 1998;78:1025-46.

Amid PK, Shulman AG, Lichtenstein IL. Open "Tension-Free" repair of inguinal hernias; The Lichtenstein technique. Eur J Surg. 1996;162:447-53.

Goldstein HS: Selecting the right mesh. Hernia. 1999;3:23-6.

Amid PK, Shulman AG, Lichtenstein IL. Open "Tension-Free" repair of inguinal hernias; The Lichtenstein technique. Eur J Surg. 1996;162:447-53.

Amid PK, Shulman AG, Lichtenstein IL. Simultaneous repair of bilateral inguinal hernias under local anesthesia. Ann Surg. 1996;223:249-52.

Capozzi JA, Berkenfield JA, Cheaty JK: Repair of inguinal hernia in the adult with prolene mesh. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1988;167:124-8.

Campanelli G, Bertocchi V, Cavalli M, Bombini G, Biondi A, Tentorio T, et al. Surgical treatment of chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair.Hernia. 2013;17(3):347-53.

Powell R, Johnston M, Smith WC, King PM, Chambers WA, Krukowski Z, et al. Psychological risk factors for chronic post-surgical pain after inguinal hernia repair surgery: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Pain. 2012;16(4):600-10.

Heise CP, Starling JR. Mesh inguinodynia: a new clinical syndrome after inguinal herniorrhaphy? J Am Coll Surg.1998;187(5):514-8.

Inaba T, Okinaga K, Fukushima R, Ikeda Y, Yamazaki E, Koide T, et al. Chronic pain and discomfort after inguinal hernia repair. Surg Today. 2012;42(9):825-9.

Kalliomäki ML, Meyerson J, Gunnarsson U, Gordh T, Sandblom G. Long term pain after inguinal hernia repair in a population-based cohort; risk factors and interference with daily activities. Eur J Pain. 2008;12(2):214-25.

Franneby U, Sandblom G, Nordin P, Nyrén O, Gunnarsson U. Risk factors for long-term pain after hernia surgery. Ann Surg. 2006;244(2):212-9.

Flum DR, Horvath K, Koepsell T. Have outcomes of incisional hernia repair improved with time? A population-based analysis. Ann Surg.2003; 237:129-35.

Haapaniemi S, Gunnarsson U, Nordin P, Nilsson E. Reoperation after recurrent groin hernia repair. Ann Surg. 2001;234:122-6.

Matskevichus ZK. Mechanisms and role of collagen biodegradation in pathology. Arkh Patol. 1987;49:3-10.

Lau H, Fang C, Yuen WK, Patil NG. Risk factors for inguinal hernia in adult males: A case-control study. Surg. 2007;141:262-6.

Ruhl CE, Everhart JE. Risk Factors for Inguinal Hernia among Adults in the US Population. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:1154-61.