DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20191537

The role of inflammatory reaction in chronic venous disease of the lower limb

Ketan Vagholkar, Shivangi Garima, Yash Kripalani

Abstract


Chronic venous disease is the problem which is assuming alarming proportions in subjects whose occupation involves prolonged sitting or standing. The exact mechanism by which the venous system gets damaged continues to be a subject of endless research. The role of inflammation is a significant factor in the evolution of chronic venous disease. Awareness of this mechanism can help in both prevention and treatment of this complex vascular disorder. The paper reviews inflammatory mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of chronic venous disease in lower limbs.


Keywords


Chronic, Venous, Disease, Inflammation, Leukocytes

Full Text:

PDF

References


Beaglehole R. Epidemiology of varicose veins. World J Surg. 1986;10:898-902.

Callam WA, West A. Epidemiology of varicose veins. Br J Surg. 1994;81:167-73.

Eklöf B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, Carpentier PH, Gloviczki P, Kistner RL, et al. Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus Statement. J Vasc Surg. 2004;40:1248-52.

Ono T, Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GN, Takase S. Monocyte infiltration into venous valves. J Vasc Surg. 1998;27:158-166.

Arnoldi CC. Venous pressure in patients with valvular incompetence of the veins of the lower limb. Acta Chir Scand. 1966;132:427-30.

Travers JP, Brookes CE, Evans J, Baker DM, Kent C, Makin GS, Mayhew TM. Assessment of wall structure and composition of varicose vein with reference to collagen, elastin and smooth muscle content. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1996;11:230-7.

Kockx MM, Knaapen MW, Bortier HE, Cromheeke KM, Boutherin-Falson O, Finet M. Vascular remodeling in varicose veins. Angiology. 1998;49:871-7.

Porto LC, da Silveira PR, de Carvalho JJ, Panico MD. Connective tissue accumulation in the muscle layer in normal and varicose saphenous veins. Angiology. 1995;46:243-9.

Svejcar J, Prerovsky I, Linhart J, Kruml J, Beckova B. Content of collagen, elastin, and hexosamine in primary varicose veins. Clin Sci. 1963;24:325-30.

Jacob MP, Badier-Commander C, Fontaine V, Benazzoug Y, Feldman L, Michel JB. Extracellular matrix remodeling in the vascular wall. Pathol Biol. 2001;49:326-32.

Porto LC, Azizi MA, Pelajo-Machado M, Matos da SP, Lenzi HL. Elastic fibers in saphenous varicose veins. Angiology. 2002;53:131-40.

Woodside KJ, Hu M, Burke A, Murakami M, Pounds LL, Killewich LA, et al. Morphologic characteristics of varicose veins: possible role of metalloproteinases. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38:162-9.

Sansilvestri-Morel P, Rupin A, Jaisson S. Synthesis of collagen is dysregulated in cultured fibroblasts derived from skin of subjects with varicose veins as it is in venous smooth muscle cells. Circulation. 2002;106:479-83.

Nicolaides AN. Chronic venous disease and the leukocyte endothelium interaction: from symptoms to ulceration. Angiology. 2005;56:S11-S19.

Badier-Commander C, Verbeuren T, Lebard C, Michel JB, Jacob MP. Increased TIM/MMP ratio in varicose veins: a possible explanation for extracellular matrix accumulation. J Pathol. 2000: 105-112.

Stvrtinova V, Jahnova E, Weissova S, Horvathova M, Ferencik M. Inflammatory mechanisms involving neutrophils in chronic venous insufficiency of lower limbs. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2001;102:235-9.

Bergan J, Molecular Mechanisms in Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Ann Vasc Surg. 2007;21:260-6.

Coleridge Smith PD. Neutrophil activation and Mediators of inflammation in chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Res. 1999;36:24-36.

Takase S, Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein G.W. Expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines on saphenous veins in chronic venous insufficiency. Ann Vasc Surg. 2000;14:427-435.

Dormandy JA. Influence of blood cells and blood flow on venous endothelium. Int. Angiol. 1996;15:119-23.

Gohel MS, Windhaber RAJ, Tarlton JFT, Whyman MR, Poskitt KR. The relationship between cytokine concentrations and wound healing in chronic venous ulceration. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48:1272-7.

Coleridge Smith PD. Update on chronic-venous-insufficiencyinduced inflammatory processes. Angiology. 2001;52: S35-S42.

Takase S, Delano FA, Lenrod L, Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schonbein GW. Inflammation in chronic venous insufficiency: is the problem insurmountable? J Vasc Res. 1999;36:3-10.

Coleridge Smith PD, Thomas P, Scurr JH, Dormandy JA. Causes of venousulceration: a new hypothesis. Br Med J. 1988;296:1693-5.

Mangiafico RA, Malatino LS, Santonocito M, Spada RS, Benedetto FA. Plasma endothelin-1 release in normal and varicose saphenous veins. Angiology. 1997;48:769-74.

Boisseau MR. Leukocyte involvement in the signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease. Perspectives for therapy. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2007;37:277-290.

Michiels C, Bouaziz N, Remacle J. Role of the endothelium and blood stasis in the appearance of varicose veins. Int Angiol. 2002;21:1-8.

Kirsch D, Dienes HP, Küchle R, Duschner H, Wahl W, Böttger T, Junginger T. Changes in the extracellular matrix of the vein wall- the cause of primary varicosis? Vasa. 2000;29:173-7.

Saharay M, Shields DA, Porter JB, Scurr JH, Coleridge Smith D. Leukocyte activity in the microcirculation of the leg in patients with chronic venous disease. J Vasc Surg.1997;25:265-73.

Wali MA, Eid RA. Changes of elastic and collagen fibres in varicose veins. Int. Angiol. 2002;21:337-43.

Khan AA, Eid RA, Hamid A. Structural changes in the tunica intima of varicose veins: a histopathological and ultrastructural study. Pathology. 2000;32:253-7.

Master K, Gacka M, Adamiec R. Usefulness of evaluation endothelial markers of immuno-inflammatory activity In prognosis venous leg ulcer. Prz Flebol. 2005;13:3-7.

Coleridge Smith PD. Deleterious effects of white cells in the course of skin damage in CVI. Int Angiol. 2002;21:26-32.

Schmid Schonbein GW, Takase S, Bergan JJ. New advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology. 2001;52:S27-S34.

Takase S, Schmid Schönbein GW, Bergan JJ. Leukocyte activation in patients with venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 1999;30:148-56.