Raised incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis among females in 2nd, 3rd and 4th decades: a randomized study

Rajan V. K.


Background: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), a mutual organ specific autoimmune disorder is seen mostly in women between 30-50 years of age. The rationale behind the study is to determine increased incidences of auto immune thyroiditis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid dysfunction in healthy females with no previously known thyroid disease, in an urban area.

Methods: The study was conducted on female volunteers with no known thyroid disease. 370 subjects among the hospital’s medical and administration personnel were recruited. All underwent thyroid ultrasound (US) and thyroid anti-peroxidase (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies were measured. Hypoechogenicity and thyroid volume were determined by sonography.

Results: the incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis was 23.2% and 20-30 years were most commonly affected (P = 0.008); when including cases of atrophic thyroid, the frequency decreased to 14.7%.

Conclusions: The frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis is clearly elevated in the studied population. Further studies are necessary in order to define the increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease.


Atrophic thyroiditis, Autoimmune thyroiditis, Incidence

Full Text:



Vanderpump MP. The epidemiology of thyroid disease. Br Med Bull. 2011;99:39-51.

Teng W, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Li Y, Teng D, et al. Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in China. New Eng J Med. 2006;354(26):2783-93.

Cibas ES, Ali SZ. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Thyroid. 2009;19(11):1159-65.

Meisinger C, Ittermann T, Wallaschofski H, Heier M, Below H, Kramer A, Döring A, Nauck M, Völzke H. Geographic variations in the frequency of thyroid disorders and thyroid peroxidase antibodies in persons without former thyroid disease within Germany. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167(3):363-71.

Gallego ML, Loango N, Londoño ÁL, Landazuri P. Urinary iodine excretion levels in schoolchildren from Quindio, 2006-2007. J Public Health. 2009; 11(6):952-60.

Camargo RY, Tomimori EK, Neves SC, Rubio IG, Galrão AL, Knobel M, et al. Thyroid and the environment: exposure to excessive nutritional iodine increases the prevalence of thyroid disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159(3):293-9.

Pedersen OM, Aardal NP, Larssen TB, Varhaug JE, Myking O, Vik-Mo H. The value of ultrasonography in predicting autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2000;10(3):251-9.

Flores-Rebollar A, Moreno-Castañeda L, Vega-Servín NS, López-Carrasco G, Ruiz-Juvera A. Determination of thyrotropin reference values in an adult Mexican population. Endocrinol Nutr. 2015;62(2):56-63.

Zois C, Stavrou I, Kalogera C, Svarna E, Dimoliatis I, Seferiadis K, et al. High prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in schoolchildren after elimination of iodine deficiency in northwestern Greece. Thyroid. 2003;13(5):485-9.

Duarte GC, Tomimori EK, Camargo RY, Rubio IG, Wajngarten M, Rodrigues AG, et al. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in elderly cardiology patients with mild excessive iodine intake in the urban area of São Paulo. Clinics. 2009;64(2):135-42.

Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, Ridgway EC. The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study. Arch Internal Med. 2000;160(4):526-34.

Duarte GC, Tomimori EK, de Camargo RY, Catarino RM, Ferreira JE, Knobel M, et al. Excessive iodine intake and ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009;22(4):327-34.

Davies TF. Ord-Hashimoto’s disease: renaming a common disorder-again. Thyroid. 2003;13(4):317.

Tomimori E, Pedrinola F, Cavaliere H, Knobel M, Medeiros-Neto G. Prevalence of incidental thyroid disease in a relatively low iodine intake area. Thyroid. 1995;5(4):273-6.

Vejbjerg P, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Laurberg P, Pedersen IB, Rasmussen LB, et al. The association between hypoechogenicity or irregular echo pattern at thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function in the general population. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155(4):547-52.

Burek CL, Talor MV. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis. J Autoimmunity. 2009;33(3-4):183-9.

Zimmermann MB, Andersson M. Update on iodine status worldwide. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diab Obesity. 2012;19(5):382-7.