A cross sectional study on clinical profile of endoscopic proven gastroesophageal reflux disease


  • Anshuman . Department of General Surgery, Senior Resident, RML Hospital, New Delhi, India
  • S. R. Kulkarni Department of Surgery, KIMS, Karad, Maharashtra, India




Endoscopy, Esophagitis, Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)


Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the main gastrointestinal diseases. It is due to the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus or beyond. It has many symptoms and also many complications.

Methods: Authors carried out this study to know the common symptoms, complications of GERD and the endoscopic study results regarding the same. 100 patients attending the surgery department at a tertiary care hospital were included in the study.

Results: Mean age of participants was 54.09±14.75 years. Authors divided the 100 patients into two groups, GERD with complications (28 patients) and GERD without complications (72 patients). In the present study, out of 100 GERD patients, 73 patients were males (73%) and 27 patients were females (27%) with male to female ratio of 2.7:1. In this study, among 100 GERD patients, body mass index was <25 in 70 patients (70%) and ≥25 in 30 patients (30%). Heartburn was present in 72% patients, regurgitation in 71%, retrosternal chest pain was seen in 68% patients and dysphagia was seen in 29%. Out of 100 GERD patients, 16 patients (16%) had esophageal ulcers, 8 patients (8%) had Barrett’s esophagus, 4 patients (4%) had esophageal stricture and 72 patients (72%) didn’t have any complications.

Conclusions: Age and BMI (both p <0.001) of the patients showed significant statistical difference between two groups. Some other studies also showed similar results with higher complications seen in increasing age and increased frequency of symptoms.


Locke 3rd GR, Talley NJ, Fett SL, Zinsmeister AR, Melton 3rd LJ. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gastroenterol. 1997;112(5):1448-56.

Katz PO, Gerson LB, Vela MF. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(3):308.

Vakil N, van Zanten SV, Kahrilas P, Dent J, Jones R Global Consensus Group. The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1900-20.4.

Princeton NA. Gallup survey on heartburn across America. Washington, DC. Gallup Organization. 1988.

Kang JY. Systematic review: geographical and ethnic differences in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;20:705-17.

Inderbir Singh, Pal GP, eds. Text book of Human Embryology. 8th ed. Anatomy of the stomach; 2007:152-153.

Sandler RS, Everhart JE, Donowitz M, Adams E, Cronin K, Goodman C, et al. The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States. Gastroenterol. 2002;122(5):1500-11.

El-Serag HB, Sweet S, Winchester CC, Dent J. Update on the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Gut. 2014;63(6):871-0.

Bhatia SJ, Reddy DN, Ghoshal UC, Jayanthi V, Abraham P, Choudhuri G, et al. Epidemiology and symptom profile of gastroesophageal reflux in the Indian population: report of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology Task Force. Ind J Gastroenterol. 2011;30(3):118.

Wang HY, Leena KB, Plymoth A, Hergens MP, Yin L, Shenoy KT, et al. Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and its risk factors in a community-based population in southern India. BMC Gastroenterol. 2016;16(1):36.

Johnson DA, Fennerty MB. Heartburn severity underestimates erosive esophagitis severity in elderly patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterol. 2004;126(3):660-4.

Hajar N, Castell DO, Ghomrawi H, Rackett R, Hila A. Impedance pH confirms the relationship between GERD and BMI. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57(7):1875-9.9.

Lagergren J, Bergström R, Nyren O. No relation between body mass and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a Swedish population-based study. Gut. 2000;47(1):26-9.

Corley DA, Kubo A, Zhao W. Abdominal obesity, ethnicity and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Gut. 2007;56(6):756-62.

De Giorgi F, Palmiero M, Esposito I, Mosca F, Cuomo R. Pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2006;26(5):241.

Carlsson R, Dent J, Bolling-Sternevald E, Johnsson F, Junghard O, Lauritsen K, et al. The usefulness of a structured questionnaire in the assessment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scandinavian J Gastroenterol. 1998;33(10):1023-9.

Fass R, Naliboff BD, Fass SS, Peleg N, Wendel C, Malagon IB, et al. The effect of auditory stress on perception of intraesophageal acid in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterol. 2008;134(3):696-705.

Schey R, Dickman R, Parthasarathy S, Quan SF, Wendel C, Merchant J, et al. Sleep deprivation is hyperalgesic in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterol. 2007;133(6):1787-95.

Dent J, Brun J, Fendrick AM, Fennerty MB, Janssens J, Kahrilas PJ et al. An evidence-based appraisal of reflux disease management-the Genval workshop report. Gut. 1998;44(2):S1-6.

Kahrilas PJ. Refractory heartburn. Gastroenterol. 2003;124(7):1941-5..

Brazana R, Koch K. Gastroesophageal reflux disease presenting with intractable nausea. Ann Intern Med. 1997; 9:23-7.

Johnson D, Fennerty M. Heartburn severity underestimates erosive esophagitis severity in elderly patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterol. 2004;126:660-4.

Johnson DA, Winters C, Spurling TJ, Chobanian SJ, Cattau JE. Esophageal acid sensitivity in Barrett's esophagus. J Clinic Gastroenterol. 1987;9(1):23-7.

Sleisenger MH, Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ. Sleisenger and Fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, management/gastrointestinal and liver disease. Saunders/Elsevier; 2010: 733-754.

Johnson LF, Demester TF, Haggitt RC. Endoscopic signs of gastroesophageal reflux objectively evaluated. Gastrointest Entosc. 1976;22:151.

Nayer DW, Vaezi MF. Classification of esophagitis: who needs it. Gastrointes Endosc. 2004;60:253-7.

Jacobson BC, Somers SC, Fuchs CS, Kelly CP, Camargo CA. Association Between Body Mass Index and Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms in Both Normal Weight and Overweight Women. New Eng J Med. 2006;354.

Moraes-Filho JP, Navarro-Rodriguez T, Eisig JN, Barbuti RC, Chinzon D, Quigley EM. Comorbidities are frequent in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in a tertiary health care hospital. Clinics. 2009;64(8):785-90.

Spechler SJ, Sharma P, Souza RF, Inadomi JM, Shaheen NJ. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on the management of Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterol. 2011;140:1084-91.

Chait MM. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Important considerations for the older patients. World J Gastrointes Endosc. 2010;2(12):388.






Original Research Articles