Published: 2019-03-26

Role of digital photography in evaluation of gallbladder specimens following laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone disease: a prospective observational study

Vidyasagar ., Manjunath Maruti Pol, Sunil Chumber, Yashwant Singh Rathor


Background: Digital photography helps in accurate documentation of macroscopic features of specimens and preventing inaccuracies in description of macroscopic features. Some studies recommend a digital color print be sent with each specimen to histopathology laboratory. The aim of the study was to assess the necessity of histopathological examination of resected specimen of gallbladder with no features suspicious of carcinoma gall bladder on clinicoradiological study.

Methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in the Department of Surgical Disciplines, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, between 2014 and 2016. Patients between 18 to 60 years of age with gall stone disease with no features suspicious of carcinoma gall bladder on clinicoradiological study were recruited in the study. Post-cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens were considered as subjects of study. Specimen were photographed and sent for histopathological examination. Macroscopic features on digital photography were compared with histopathological findings.

Results: About, 39/100 (39%) gallbladder specimens showed abnormal findings on digital photography; 30/39 (77%) had ulcerations, 5/39 (13%) had polypoidal lesions and 4/39 (10%) had diffuse wall thickening. 1/39 (2.6%) specimens with abnormal finding on digital photography was found to be malignant on histopathological examination. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of digital photography was 100%, 67.7%, 100% and 3.03% respectively.

Conclusions: Digital photography can prove to be a good tool in documenting macroscopic features of gallbladder specimens. Digital photography is associated with high sensitivity and negative predictive value; however, larger sample size is required to establish its significant correlation.


Digital photography, Cholecystectomy, Carcinoma gall bladder

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