A one-year study of cholelithiasis at a tertiary care hospital of South India

Ramalinga Reddy Rachamalla, Kishore Kumar Markapuram, Sreeram Satish


Background: Gall stone disease is a chronic recurrent disease of hepatobiliary system characterised by formation of gall stones due to impaired metabolism of bile acids, cholesterol and bilirubin. The prevalence of cholelithiasis is variable and has been reported as 2-29% in India with differences in interstate and interregions. The objective of the present study was mainly focuses on the total clinical study with surgical management and their outcome.

Methods: A prospective study for a period of one year was done after approval from ethical committee. The socio-demographic factors, clinical history, physical examination, laboratory investigations with ultrasound abdomen were done in all the cases. Surgical repair by Laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy was done.

Results: Females were more predominant with male: female ratio of 1:1.97. Mean age of study population was 34.12±6.2 years and was more common during 5th decade of life. Pain in the hypochondrium was most common sign. Mixed stones were most common and mostly observed in cases of mixed diet. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was most commonly performed with zero conversion rate. Wound infection was the most common post-operative complication in both the types of repair.

Conclusions: To conclude, from the present study females were more commonly affected by cholelithiasis than males with a ratio of 1:1.97. Females are more prone during fertile age and reasons are multifactorial due to hormones, parity and hormonal contraceptives. Gall stone disease is more common during fourth and fifth decade of life in both males and females. Mixed diet (non-vegetarian) is associated with increased risk of developing gall stones than vegetarian diet.


Cholelithiasis, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Ultrasound abdomen, Wound infection

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