Determining foot evaluation done in diabetic in-patients admitted in medical wards and analyzing it through Amit Jain’s triple assessment for foot in diabetes


  • Santosh M. P. Department of Surgery, Rajarajeswari Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  • Amit Kumar C. Jain Department of Surgery, Rajarajeswari Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  • Gopal S. Department of Surgery, Rajarajeswari Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India



Amit Jain, Assessment, Diabetes, Foot, Screening, Triple


Background: The present study was done to assess the foot evaluation done by the physician in diabetic patients and analyzing it through Amit Jain’s triple assessment for foot in diabetes.

Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was done at Rajarajeswari Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The study period was from July 2017 to December 2017. All the patients admitted in medical ward with diabetes were studied.

Results: A total of 65 patients were included in this study. Majority of patients had diabetes of less than 10 year duration. Around 27.7% who were admitted had some history of foot complaints. However, foot examination was done by physicians only in 7.7% of the cases. It was seen that only 6.2% of the feet were inspected (look component), 1.5% of patients pulses were assessed (Feel component) and none of the patients had their sensation checked (Test component). Ophthalmologist was most commonly consulted specialist (35.4%) for eye evaluation in comparison to surgeon for foot evaluation.

Conclusions: Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and screening of foot is essential to prevent complications and amputation. This study done through Amit Jain’s triple assessment for foot in diabetes showed that foot evaluation was poorly done by physicians.


Singh S, Pai DR, Yuhhui C. Diabetic foot ulcer- Diagnosis and management. Clin Res Foot Ankle. 2013;1:3.

Kotru S, Kotru B, Joshi K. Intervention of diabetes foot care practices on the prevention of new diabetic foot ulcers in patients with type 2 Diaebtes mellitus. J Diabetes Metab. 2015;6:2.

Saurabh S, Sarkar S, Selvaraj K, Kar SS, Kumar SG, Roy G. Effectiveness of foot care education among people with type 2 diabetes in rural Puducherry, India. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2014;18(1):106-10.

Viswanathan V, Kumptla S. Pattern and causes of amputation in diabetic patients. A multicentric study from India. JAPI. 2011;59:148-51.

Sutkowsko EE, Sokolowski M, Zdrojowy K, Dragan S. Active screening for diabetic foot – assessment of health care professional’s compliance to it. Clin Diabetol. 2016;5(3):83-7.

Jain A, Kumar K, Kumar H, Kumar S. Amit Jain’s triple assessment: a new screening method for the diabetic foot. DFJME. 2018;4(1):40-1.

Wu S. Pressure mitigation for the diabetic foot ulcer. Podiatry Managem. 2015;79-85.

Priyadarshini J, Abdi S, Metwaly A, Lenjawi BA, San Jose J, Mohamed H. Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers at primary care level. Dermatol Open J. 2018;3(1):4-9

Chalya PL, Mabula JB, Dass RM, Kabangila R, Jaka H, Mchembe MD et al. Surgical management of diabetic foot ulcers. A Tanzanian university teaching hospital experience. BMC Research Notes. 2011;4:365.

Jain AKC. Amit Jain’s triple assessment for foot in diabetes - the simplest and the fastest new screening tool in the world. IJMSCI. 2017;4(6):3015-9.

Jain A. Amit Jain’s triple assessment of foot in diabetes: a rapid screening tool. Wounds Int. 2018;9(1):35-7.

Jain AKC. Amit Jain’s system of practice for diabetic foot: the new religion in diabetic foot field. Int J Surg. 2018;5(2):368-372.

Jain AKC, Jabbar S, Gopal S. Analysis of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot in patients admitted with diabetic foot complication through Amit Jain’s triple assessment for foot in diabetes. Int Surg J. 2018;5:2217-22.

Rosner B. In: Fundamentals of Biostatistics, 5 th Edition, Duxbury;2000.

Riffenburg RH. In: Statistics in Medicine, 2 nd Edition, Academic press;2005.

Rao PSSS, Richard J. In: An Introduction to Biostatistics, A manual for students in health sciences. 4th Ed. New Delhi: Prentice hall of India; 2006.

Suresh KP, Chandrasekhar S. Sample Size estimation and Power analysis for Clinical research studies. J Human Reproduc Sci. 2012;5(1):7-13.

Pendsey SP. Understanding diabetic foot. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2010;30(2):75-9.

Sulistyo AHS, Saesia W, Maneewat K. Diabetic foot care knowledge and behaviors of individual with diabetes mellitus in Indonesia. GSTF J Nurs Health Care. 2017;5(1).

Berbrayer D. Self care among diabetic amputee. Int J Diabetes Clin Res. 2015;2:1.

Miller JD, Carter E, Shih J. How to do 3 minute diabetic foot exam. J Fam Prac. 2014;63(11):646-56.

Irfan N, Fatima M. The Great Diabetic Debate: What Part Does The Physician Play in Patient’s Foot Care Knowledge?. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci. 2016:72.

Kumar D, Khan MU, Mobin A. The awareness and practices of foot care in adult diabetic patients attending University Hospital. J Diabetes Metab. 2016;7:11.

Ismail I, Dhanapathy A, Gandhi A, Kannan S. Diabetic foot complication in a secondary foot hospital: A clinical audit. AMJ. 2015;8(4):106-12.






Original Research Articles