Study of correlation between pre-operative ultrasonographic findings and difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy


  • Himanshu Chindarkar Department of General Surgery, Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • Ramesh Dumbre Department of General Surgery, Poona Hospital and Research Centre, Maharashtra, India, India
  • Arun Fernandes Department of General Surgery, Poona Hospital and Research Centre, Maharashtra, India, India
  • Deepak Phalgune Department of Research, Poona Hospital and Research Centre, Maharashtra, India, India



Difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Open cholecystectomy, Ultrasonographic findings, Ultrasonography score


Background: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy prevention of certain life-threatening complications are dependent on proper patient selection. Some reliable factors to predict difficulty, conversion or complications in laparoscopic cholecystectomy are needed. In the present research attempt was made to study correlation between pre-operative abdominal ultrasonographic findings and difficultly in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Methods: Sixty patients above age of 18 years with gall stone admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. Pre-operative ultrasonographic parameters such as gallbladder wall thickness and size, gallstone mobility, common bile duct (CBD) diameter, size and number of calculi, presence of pericholecystic fluid collection were given score of 0 or 1 based on findings being negative or positive respectively. Total score was correlated to intraoperative difficulty of surgery. Operative findings were graded as difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy if there were presence of dense peri gall bladder adhesions, difficulty in dissection of Calot triangle, tear of gallbladder, bleeding that hindered visual field, abnormal anatomy of biliary tree and buried or intrahepatic gall bladder.

Results: Pre-operative USG findings such as gall bladder wall thickness and size, impacted and size of gall stones, CBD diameter, presence of pericholecystic fluid collection were significantly associated with difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gall bladder wall thickness, pericholecystic fluid collection and impacted gall stones were accurate predictors for difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Higher the pre-operative USG score, higher were the percentage of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conversion to open cholecystectomy.

Conclusions: Pre-operative ultrasonography in the form of the formulated score is a good predictor of difficulty in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


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