Study of clinico-epidemiological factors and outcome of tetanus in a tertiary care hospital

Vikram Singh Sodha, Shalu Gupta, Somendra Bansal, Bhanwar Lal Yadav, Dinesh Bharti, Bhanu Kaushik


Background: Tetanus is an acute neurological fatal disorder caused by anaerobic spore forming bacillus Clostridium tetani, which produced an exotoxin (Tetanospasmin) in a wound. Purpose of this study was to find out the clinico-epidemiological factors of tetanus and how we can modify or minimize the outcome of this disease.

Methods: This prospective, observational study was conducted in isolation ward in department of general surgery, SMS hospital Jaipur (Rajasthan) from 1 March 2016 to October 2017. Two hundred patients with clinical diagnosis of tetanus, who were admitted in single unit of SMS hospital, recruited in this study. Patients with age less than 1 yr were excluded. After admission, patient’s detailed history and thorough clinical examination done. The day to day progress of the cases was followed till the time of their discharge from the hospital. Outcome variables were age, gender, geographical area, causes of tetanus and site of injury, precipitating factors, role of baclofen, morbidity, cured and mortality.

Results: In this study, mean age of patients were 17 years and male to female ratio was 2.44:1. Most of patients were from rural backgrounds with rural to urban ratio of 6.14:1. Overall mortality in present study was 16.5%. The severity of disease directly related with mortality. The mortality for mild, moderate and severe tetanus was 0%, 1.9% and 68.1% respectively.

Conclusions: Though tetanus is a vaccine preventable illness, its prevalence is high in our country. The incidence of tetanus can be reduced by: strengthening of primary immunization programme; proper wound management and giving prophylactic tetanus immune globulins along with tetanus vaccine.


Mortality, Severity, Tetanus

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