Causes and incidence of laparoscopic cholecystectomy conversion to open cholecystectomy in Al Karama teaching hospital

Mohammed Reda Al Ghadhban, Hussein Ali Alkumasi, Mohammed Saleem Meziad


Background: There is no doubt that laparoscopic cholecystectomy replaced open cholecystectomy as standard procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Conversion from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy is still required in many circumstance, this study aimed at exploring causes and incidence of conversion.  

Methods: This is a prospective study of 200 cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases were performed in ALKARAMA Teaching Hospital from January2009 to January 2011. All cases were followed at the time of surgery by obtaining data sheet for the patient’s age, sex, time from the introduction of ports till decision of conversion and the cause of conversion if present.

Results: Out of 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 12 cases were converted into open cholecystectomy (6%). The major causes were : dense adhesions (4),  bleeding (2), anatomical difficulties (2), impacted stone in Hartmann pauch (2), dilated cystic duct (1) and sever inflammation (1). Two of the conversions are males from 45 male patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 10 cases are females from 155 female patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy so the percentage of conversion for male patients is 4.44 % while for female patients is 6.45%.

Conclusions: The conversion rate in this study is 6% and the most common cause for conversion is dense adhesions in the Calot’s triangle, no biliary duct injury that need conversion is found in this study and the rate for conversion is higher in female patients.


Cholecystectomy, Conversion, Incidence, Laparoscopic

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