Evaluation of role of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in treatment of patients with perforation peritonitis: a prospective study

Tapan Singh Chauhan, Chisel Bhatia, Satish Dalal, Nityasha Nara, Tulit Chhabra


Background: GM-CSF has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of infection in patients who receive myelosuppressive anticancer chemotherapy or patients who are neutropenic and agranulocytic. We study the role of GM-CSF in non-neutropenic patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), infections and sepsis with impaired neutrophil function to access the current rationale for administering GM-CSF in addition to standard antibiotic therapy to critically ill patients

Methods: All patients undergoing surgery for peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforations were included in this study and were divided into two groups alternatively to avoid any bias i.e. Group A 1, 3, 5 etc. and Group B 2, 4, 6 etc. Group A - all patients received GM-CSF along with standard antibiotics. Group B patients received antibiotics only. Course of patient in immediate postoperative period, time to improvement, duration of hospital stay, antibiotic therapy, rate of complications were compared.

Results: Patients in group A had a lower duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay. Patients in group A took less time to show clinical improvement compared to patients in Group B. Group A also had a much lower rate of infectious and systemic complications compared to group B.

Conclusions: Results of the present study show that GM-CSF is an important molecule when used as adjunct to antibiotics in cases of abdominal sepsis. Use of this growth factor is associated with less incidence of septic complications and morbidity, a shorter duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay without significantly compromising the cost. The results of present study help in identifying its role in non-neutropenic patient groups who are most likely to benefit from its administration.


Colony stimulating factors, GM-CSF, Perforation peritonitis, SIRS

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