DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20181035

The effect body mass index on varicocele

Ehab Jasim Mohammad, Kanaan Mahdi Abbas, Ali Hussein Abd, Alaa Abdulqader Abdulrazaq

Abstract


Background: Varicocele, is the most common abnormal finding among men presenting with infertility, yet controversy exist regarding their etiology. Anecdotal experience suggests that varicoceles are more prevalent in lean men, supporting the “nutcracker” effect of the superior mesenteric artery compressing the left renal vein over the aorta. The aim of this study was to determine the association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and occurrence of varicocele.

Methods: A total of 100 males with varicocele attending the urological outpatient clinic were evaluated from their physical screening examinations.  All subjects underwent history taking and physical examinations to evaluate for the presence and severity of varicocele, height, weight, and BMI, those compared with 100 men without varicocele (control group) were selected randomly from general population.

Results: The mean BMI of the 100 patients with varicocele was 26.1620 while that of the control group was 29.7330 (P= 0.0001) which is clinically significant. Varicocele grade decreased with increasing BMI category (P= 0.0001).

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there is a decreasing incidence of varicocele and varicocele grade with increasing BMI, Supporting the possibility that obesity results in a decreased nutcracker effect in which the adipose tissue prevents compression of the renal vein.


Keywords


Association, BMI, Nutcracker, Varicocele

Full Text:

PDF

References


Nagler HM. Martinis FG: Varicocele. In: Lipshultz LI, Howards SS, ed. Infertility in the Male, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Cambridge University Press;1979:363-9.

Lipshul LI, Thommas, AJ, Khera M. Surgical Management of Male Infertility, Wein: Campbell-Walsh Urology, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier;2007:658-9.

von Ruesten A, Steffen A, Floegel A, Masala G, Tjønneland A, Halkjaer J, Palli D, et al. Trend in obesity prevalence in European adult cohort populations during follow-up since 1996 and their predictions to 2015. PloS one. 2011;6(11):e27455.

Seidell JC, Visscher TL. Body weight and weight change and their health implications for the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54:S33-S39.

Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA. 1999;282:1523-9.

Pasquali R, Patton L, Gambineri A. Obesity and infertility. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2007;14:482-7.

Qin DD, Yuan W, Zhou WJ, Cui YQ, Wu JQ, Gao ES. Do reproductive hormones explain the association between body mass index and semen quality? Asian J Androl. 2007;9:827-34.

Gökçe A, Davarcı M, Yalçınkaya FR, Güven EO, Balbay MD. Relationship of Varicocele with height and obesity in men presenting with infertility. Eur Urol. 2009;8(8):599.

Handel NL, Shetty R, Sigman M. The Relationship between Varicocele and Obesity. J Urol. 2007;178(5):2138-9.

Nielsen ME, Zderic S, Freedland SJ, Jarow JP. Insight on pathogenesis of varicoceles: relationship of varicocele and body mass index. Urology. 2006;68(2):392-6.

May M, Taymoorian K, Beutner S, Helke C, Braun KP, Lein M, et al., Body size and weight as predisposing factors in varicocele. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(1):45-8.

Chen SS, Huang WJ. Differences in Biochemical Markers and Body Mass Index between Patients with and Without Varicocele. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73(4):194-8.

Tsao CW, Hsu CY, Cou YC, Wu ST, Sun GH, Y u DS, et al., Is 0besity correlated with sexual function in young men? J Androl. 2009;30(3):275-9.

Celiktats M, Aikimbaev K, Aridogan IA. Soyupak S, Inal M. effect of the amount of retroperitoneal fat tissue on testicular venous drainage Urol Int. 2009;83(1):92-7.

Gallagher D, Visser M, Sepulveda D, Pierson RN, Harris T, Heymsfield SB. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143(3):228-39.

Delaney DP, Carr MC, Kolon TF, Snyder HM, Zderic SA. The physical characteristics of young males with varicocele. BJU Int. 2004;94(4):624-6.

Nielsen ME, Zderic S, Freedland SJ, Jarow JP. Insight on pathogenesis of varicoceles: relationship of varicocele and body mass index. Urology. 2006;68(2):392-6.

Celiktats M, Aikimbaev K, Aridogan IA. Soyupak S, Inal M. effect of the amount of retroperitoneal fat tissue on testicular venous drainage Urol Int. 2009;83(1):92-7.

Sharlip ID, Jarow JP, Belker AM, Lipshultz LI, Sigman M, Thomas AJ, et al., Best practice policies for male infertility, Fertil Steril. 2002;77(5),873-82.