Clinical study of breast lump-triple assessment does help in diagnosing it better

Priti Prasad Shah, Shama Shaikh, Sunil Panchbhai, Bahul Vakhariya


Background: Breast cancer is most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and also most common cause of cancer death among women. Early stage detection is still low and is the major reason for poor treatment outcomes in our country. Most of the breast lumps are benign. However, it is important to rule out malignancy. This prospective clinical study is done to evaluate role of triple assessment (clinical examination, mammography and histopathology) in diagnosing breast lump.

Methods: All women admitted with the symptoms and signs of breast lump at our hospital were studied in the period of 2 years from July 2014 to June 2016. The findings of physical examination and mammographic examination with histopathological diagnosis were noted n compared.

Results: Physical examination of breast lumps is overall less accurate as compared to mammography. There is a tendency to over diagnose malignancy on physical examination. Mammography is more sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of palpable breast lumps as compared to physical examination. Histopathology confirms the diagnosis.

Conclusions: It is better to do all three that is clinical examination, mammography and histopathology for all breast lumps diagnosis.


Breast lump, Clinical examination, Mammography and histopathology

Full Text:



Dixon M, Thomas J. Symptoms, assessment and guidelines for referral. ABC of breast diseases, 3rd Edition, Blackwell publishing Ltd, Massachusetts; 2006:1-7.

Barton MB, Elmore JG, Fletcher SW. Breast symptoms among women enrolled in a health maintenance organization: frequency, evaluation, and outcome. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:651-7.

Perdue P, Page D, Nellestein M, Salem C, Galbo C, Ghosh B. Early detection of breast carcinoma: a comparison of palpable and nonpalpable lesions. Surg. 1992;111:656-9.

Kamath R, Mahajan K S, Ashok L, and Sanal TS. A Study on Risk Factors of Breast Cancer Among Patients Attending the Tertiary Care Hospital, in Udupi. Indian J Community Med. 2013;38(2):95-9.

Kopans DB. Palpable abnormalities and breast imaging. In: Breast Imaging. 2nd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1998:747-759.

American College of Radiology. Breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS), 2nd Ed. Reston, VA: American College of Radiology; 1995.

Eberl MM, Fox CH, Edge SB, Carter CA, Mahoney MC. BI-RADS classification for management of abnormal mammograms. J Am Board Fam Medi. 2006;19(2):161-4.

Hughes LE, Mansel RE, Webster DJT. Aberrations of normal development and involution (ANDI): a new perspective on pathogenesis and nomenclature of benign breast disorders. Lancet. 1987;2:1316-9.

Gallagher HS, Martin JE. The study of mammary carcinoma by mammography and whole organ sectioning. Cancer; 1969:855-873.

Prajapati CL, Jegoda RK, Patel UA, Patel J. Breast lumps in a teaching hospital: a 5 years study. National J Med Res. 2014;4(1):65-7.

Lalchan S, Thapa M, Sharma P, Shrestha S. Role of mammography combined with ultrasonography in evaluation of breast lump. Am J Public Health Res. 2015;3(5):95-8.

Benson JR, Jatoi I, Keisch M, Esteva FJ. Early breast cancer. The Lancet. 2009;373(9673):1463-79.

Armstrong AC, Evans G. Management of women at high risk of breast cancer. BMJ. 2014;348:2756

Ravi C, Rodrigues G. Accuracy of clinical examination of breast lumps in detecting malignancy: a retrospective study. Indian J Surg Oncol. 2012;3(2):154-7.